The Quest for a Capital
by John Michael Vlach
Professor of American Studies and of Anthropology
The George Washington University

The Quest for a Capital

US Capitol
Figure 1

The Capitol building provides a name for our neighborhood [Fig. 1]. It is what some might call an "epitome structure," a dominant building that provides a place its core identity. When we see the Capitol, we are certain that we are approaching Capitol Hill. While some might say that the Capitol stands on Jenkin's Hill, Ruth Ann Overbeck -- the great woman for whom this lecture series is named -- counseled us that such a label was, in fact, an error. If the promontory that lifts the Capitol above the city of Washington had a name before that building was constructed, she reminded us that it would have been "Carroll's Hill" because Daniel Carroll of Duddington owned that land. The Capitol, the legislative office buildings, the Supreme Court, and the Library of Congress all stand today within the portion of Carroll's extensive holdings that was formerly known as the "New Troy" tract.

This bit of debate over a place name reminds us that Washington, D.C. was an invented place, a place that grew out of considerable experimentation, competition and argument. In fact, in its quest for a capital city, the First Congress had already decided that the Capitol would be located outside of Philadelphia in what is today the suburb of Germantown . We -- the citizens of Capitol Hill -- would be living in Pennsylvania were it not for an eleventh-hour deal negotiated between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson in 1790 when the Congress was holding its sessions in New York . After a protracted discussion that reportedly occurred as the two founding fathers walked back and forth in front President Washington's residence, Jefferson agreed that the federal government rather than the individual states should pay off the debts that the country had accrued during its recent war with England . Jefferson, a strong advocate for state's rights was, in part, persuaded to allow the federal government to have command over important fiscal matters because of Hamilton 's offer to locate the national capital somewhere in the South. Believing that the federal power over the purse could be effectively monitored if the seat of government were located close at hand rather than in Pennsylvania, Jefferson accepted Hamilton 's compromise. A deal was struck that required a 100-square mile federal district to be located somewhere along the Potomac River at a site to be chosen by George Washington. As we all now know, Washington selected the intersection of the Potomac and the Anacostia Rivers and he engaged Pierre Charles L'Enfant, an artist who had served under his command at Valley Forge, to design the new city .

Early DC
Figure 2 - Click To Enlarge

As L'Enfant inspected the features of this newly proposed southern location over the course of several rainy months, he found it to a problematic place. Once again there was a need for negotiation, compromise, and adjustment. The District of Columbia was a territory composed of low hills and uneven ground riven by many creeks as well as by the two prominent rivers [Fig. 2]. It was a place of thickets, creeks, and tidal marshes and, further, the site was already occupied by about twenty farms and plantations. L'Enfant faced a formidable challenge when he was tasked with designing a impressive seat for governance, but he would eventually discover a fan-shaped plain just to the north of the point where the Anacostia (then known as the Eastern Branch) entered the Potomac . It was there that he would propose an ambitious plan for a great city marked by long vistas, broad avenues, and exhilarating monuments.

Figure 3 - Click To Enlarge

But L'Enfant was not simply free to follow his creative muse. The city fathers -- and their were quite a few who would claim parental status -- also offered many suggestions for the appearance of the future capital. Because most had some training in the classics, they were familiar with the capitol cities of the ancient Mediterranean world. Jefferson had already appropriated features from the famous Acropolis of Athens in his design for the Virginia state Capitol in Richmond . Since the city of Washington was to be located on a river site with certain physical parallels with Richmond, the case could easily be made that it too was ready for an Acropolis. It might have been positioned at the site of the Old Naval Observatory where it would tower above the Potomac in much the same way that the Virginia Capitol overlooked the James River [Figs. 3-4].

Figure 4 - Click To Enlarge

Others, particularly President Washington, were more taken more with the grandeur of the Rome . In fact, one of the early nicknames for the District of Columbia was "the American Rome." The Roman Forum, a long promenade punctuated with monuments, meeting sites, markets, baths, and shops thus held great appeal. Such an array of places might provide men of state and their colleagues with a variety of opportune places where they could "meet and greet" and transact the business of commerce and government.


Figure 5 - Click To Enlarge

George Washington called for a city that was essentially a market town; a mercantile center that would stretch across the whole of the federal enclave and link the existing port town of Georgetown with what he thought would be the more promising future port on the Anacostia River . The Anacostia, he counseled, was wider, deeper, less prone to ice in the winter, and thus inclined to offer generous profits for any investors. In fact, one of the earliest maps of the city, a 1792 Thackra and Vallance print, makes it clear that harbor facilities were to be a prominent feature of the capitol city [Fig. 5]. The shoreline of the entire city -- from Georgetown to Buzzard Point to the ferry located well beyond the Navy Yard -- is shown as a continuous line of wharves. Tobias Lear, George Washington's personal secretary, offered effusive praise for the virtues of the Anacostia River and, by extension, for the great marketing center that it might support.

The eastern branch affords one of the finest harbors imaginable... The channel is generally so near the city, that a wharf extended 40 or 50 feet from the bank, with have water enough for the largest ships to come up, discharge and receive their cargoes. The land on each side of the branch is sufficiently high to secure shipping from an any wind that blows... while vessels in the main river, if they should be caught there by ice, are liable to receive great injury, and are sometimes totally lost by it, those in branch lay in perfect security.

Figure 6 - Click To Enlarge

The City of Washington was developed along the lines of the Roman Forum as an elongated meeting ground and as a hub for commerce. But the Thackra and Valance map indicates only a desired outcome, not the actual achievement. George Cooke's 1834 painting reveals a still emerging city [Fig. 6]. It shows that while Pennsylvania Avenue did give the city a forum-like organization, most of the city's development was confined to the edges of the roadway so that most of Washington City remained undeveloped open space. There was little activity in southwestern Washington, the Mall was non-existent, and most of Capitol Hill consisted, at that time, of modest houses built to offer shelter for workers employed at the Navy Yard.



Figure 7 - Click To Enlarge

Even a brief summary of how the city of Washington was planned reveals a piecemeal process, local resistance or hesitance to fully accept urbanization, and a general failure to fully implement L'Enfant's grand scheme. Images of Washington made during the first half of the nineteenth century reveal scenes of distressing emptiness. Thomas Doughty's 1832 view from the old city hall (then at 4th and D Streets, NW) presents what must be called an unbuilt Washington [Fig. 7]. The Capitol building stands in isolation, although some row houses stand along New Jersey Ave, SW. No other structures are visible except for the city jail (the old temporary brick Capitol built in 1815). In 1839 August Kollner painted and sketched the various sections of the capital city. One of his images, entitled "One Mile from City Hall" is scene of a desolate open field [Fig. 8].

Figure 8 - Click To Enlarge

Probably a rendering of the territory near what is today U Street, NW, the drawing offers a vista indicative of the northern hinterlands of Capitol Hill. This area was known at the time as the "slashes" because of its wild and untamed appearance. Much of Capitol Hill shared this same appearance; only a small portion was cleared and developed even as late as the period of the Civil War. Washington resident Margaret Bayard Smith wrote in 1824 "Capitol Hill, and the low ground below it, was covered with a wood, and that along the Tiber [Creek] and the [ Pennsylvania ] avenue was not even laid out. Oh, it was a desolate place, and except for the Capitol and the President's house, looked more like a wilderness than a city." Our current landscape of gridded blocks covered with row houses lined up check-by-jowl would develop gradually across the second half of the nineteenth century and was not finally completed until 1909. Because Capitol Hill was not fully urbanized until the onset of the twentieth century, we might be curious about what was here earlier and we might also ask what effect the earlier developments (or lack of them) had on the place that our "village" has become. In many ways, Capitol Hill proved to be quite resistant to L'Enfant's grand design.

Figure 9 - Click To Enlarge

In 1874 Joseph Toner traced the holdings of the twenty-one early landowners on a map that inscribes the boundaries of their properties over the scheme of broad avenues imagined by L'Enfant [Fig. 9]. Toner does not show the very first land patentees who had claims that extended back to the seventeenth century, but rather those property owners who were directly affected by the invention of the capital city in 1790. Because they had to cede much of their property to the government, these men were not entirely a happy lot. L'Enfant's envisioned city covered approximately 6,000 acres within territory set aside as the District of Columbia . Of that acreage, he would claim roughly half of it a space for streets, parks, squares, and so-called government reservations that would provide the sites for various buildings. Those property owners, who at the time had been citizens of the western-most portion of Prince George 's County, had to pay a high price for being citizens of the capital city.

Figure 10 - Click To Enlarge

For the most part, all vestiges of the pre-L'Enfant occupants of Capitol Hill have been erased from the landscape. Yet, we can still revisit the sites once held by those eighteenth-century landowners. City planner and D.C. historian Don Hawkins up-graded Joseph Toner's findings in 1991 and he located precisely the holdings of the families who owned the Hill before it became the site of the Capitol [Fig. 10]. While all of their homes show up very clearly on an 1802 map meant to show the most efficient route for travel between Philadelphia and Washington, our inquiry will use as a base of reference an 1818 map drawn by Washington city surveyor Robert King [Fig. 11].

Figure 11 - Click To Enlarge

Essentially a sales device, this map indicates all of the city's planned blocks and streets, many of which were not yet fully surveyed or constructed. King also renders some of the city's key topographical features indicating the locations of major creeks and streams. What King's map reveals immediately is that Capitol Hill is not so much a hill but a plateau. It rises very quickly at its edges to a height of about eighty feet above the Potomac and was surrounded by streams to the north, west, and east and bounded on its southern edge by the Anacostia. Dwellings on the "hill" were all sited along the edges of a plateau -- on the promontories overlooking either the surrounding low ground or the river. L'Enfant realized the desirability of an edge location when he wrote to George Washington in the summer of 1791 about Capitol Hill: "for other eligible situations... I could not discover one in all respects so advantageous... for erecting the Federal House [as] the western end of Jenkin's Heights [which] stands really as a pedestal waiting for a superstructure." The early settlers of Capitol Hill understood, as did L'Enfant, that there was an advantage in claiming the view from above. Landowners could always look down on those passing by and, in turn, they were destined to be looked up to with some measure of respect, even if it was only grudging.

We turn now to those estates on Capitol Hill that preceded the creation of the capital city.


Capitol Hill's Early Landowners


George Walker

In 1791 George Walker acquired a large portion of a tract of Capitol Hill known as "The Houpyard." His holdings encompassed some 358 acres extending from G Street, NE down across what is today Lincoln Park to the banks of the Anacostia [Figs. 10-11].

Figure 12 - Click To Enlarge

Sensing that there might be great profits to be made in the new capital city, Walker, a Scottish merchant then living in Georgetown, decided to become a land speculator. The Houpyard (also known as The Hopeyard), named after Walter Houp (one of the original patentees who had acquired this tract in 1686), would pass through several owners including Eliphaz Riley, Robert Douglas, and James White. Walker purchased his tract from land speculator Overton Carr. At that time Walker's home site included a large brick house with a detached kitchen, a wood framed barn and stable, three log cabins (presumably quarters for enslaved fieldhands) [Fig. 12]. These buildings, constructed by one of the earlier owners, were of little interest to Walker for he soon moved to a brick house near the future site of the Supreme Court and for the next thirteen years he aggressively promoted Capitol Hill through various commercial enterprises and real estate ventures. But Walker, who was an unlucky businessman, found himself bankrupt in 1804. He abruptly left Washington for Philadelphia where he died in 1817.

Figure 13 - Click To Enlarge

Apparently, his first home site -- located a mere six blocks from the Capitol building -- remained the object of legal contestation for more than a century. Real estate maps drawn up in 1856 and 1887 show the block (bounded by D and E, 6th and 7th Streets, NE) as an empty field devoid of any structures. Finally in 1909 more than one hundred townhouses based on designs by architect Harry Wardman (best known for the Wardman-Park Hotel on Connecticut Avenue and other homes in the Cleveland Park neighborhood) filled the entire block [Fig. 13].

Figure 14 - Click To Enlarge

During this development project the original block was split in two by the creation of Lexington Place, a one-block-long street which allowed an additional forty-two houses to be constructed within Walker 's old home site. His two-story brick house once stood very near the house located at 641 Lexington [Fig. 14].


Figure 15
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Abraham Young

Abraham Young operated a farm at the eastern end of Capitol Hill with the labor of twelve slaves [Fig. 10-11]. When L'Enfant's survey crews began to set out the right-of-ways for streets in the vicinity of 14th and 15th Streets, NE, Young determined that the new roads would play havoc with his farm. His house, kitchen, and other domestic buildings would be separated from his barn and family graveyard by the path of D Street [Fig. 15].

Figure 16 - Click To Enlarge

Figure 17 - Click To Enlarge

His response was to build a new house to the east of 15th Street just beyond the limits of the new federal city. He chose to reside in Washington County but still adjacent to his property just across the line in Washington City [Fig. 16]. When Young died in 1797 there was still no appreciable urban development near his property; it was still farmland sitting above a prominent spring. His widow Ann married his overseer Gerard Gibson and she stayed on the farm until 1827.

After several subsequent property transfers the second of Young's homes was acquired by Robert Isherwood and his name is still preserved as the name of a street just a block from the site of Abraham Young's house [Fig. 17].


William Young

Figure 18 - Click To Enlarge

William Young owned large tract of land immediately to the south of the farm that belonged to his brother Abraham [Figs. 10-11]. Extending from what is today East Capitol Street down to the banks of the Anacostia, his residence overlooked the Anacostia from bluff that is now located within the grounds of Congressional Cemetery on a block previously bounded by 17th and 18th, H and Water Streets, SE. His house was flanked by a kitchen and surrounded by four log buildings; some of them were quartering buildings for his ten slaves and others that served as storage structures, probably a smokehouse and a dairy [Fig. 18].

Figure 19
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Figure 20
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This was the common arrangement used during the antebellum period for a typical southern farm. Given that Young's farm now lies within grounds of a cemetery, there are no remaining vestiges except perhaps the large tree standing near the site of the house [Fig. 19]. This lone sentinel may once have been sapling rising in Young's yard. Eerily close to that tree is a tall stone memorial marking the final resting place of William Young [Fig. 20].


Widow Wheeler

Figure 21 - Click To Enlarge

The so-called Widow Wheeler was Elizabeth Wheeler, wife of ferry operator Aquila Wheeler. She was also the sister of William and Abraham Young and was probably provided with three thin waterfront tracts along the shore of the Anacostia by her family [Figs. 10-11]. She and her husband operated a ferry across the Anacostia from a triangular shaped plot of ground immediately to the south of the block in L'Enfant's grid designated as No.1048. A map of the site drawn by city surveyor Nicholas King in 1796 shows a wharf and cluster of small wooden buildings, largest of them a wood-framed cottage measuring just twenty-one by eighteen feet [Fig. 21].

Figure 22 - Click To Enlarge

All of these structures stood very close to the water's edge at the base of a rather steep bluff. Painter August Kollner captured some sense of this place in his 1839 view of a bridge across the Anacostia at 11th Street just three blocks to the west of the ferry wharf [Fig. 22]. The high bank in the foreground of his image was just above Wheeler's ferry landing.


Figure 23 - Click To Enlarge

Today the site is obliterated by the path of the Southeast Freeway [Fig. 23]. There are only a few semblances of what once was: a dirt and gravel road that leads down what remains of the bluff, slips for boats along the shore [Fig. 24]. But one can stand at the river's edge and imagine still what it was once like to come down off from Capitol Hill to wait for a boat. The ferry road that rose to the top of the bluff through a narrow gully was, in fact, the major highway that linked Prince George 's and Montgomery Counties .

Figure 24 - Click To Enlarge

It was a path previously trod by L'Enfant as he explored Capitol Hill for the first time. Inspecting the area in the spring months of 1791, he wrote that "the country is level and on a space of about two miles each way presents the most eligible position for the first settlement of a grand City." The road from Widow Wheeler's ferry took him across the flat back of Capitol Hill directly to the western edge of Daniel Carroll's tracts. There he first encountered the site that he would immediately declare to be the place best suited for the construction of the new Capitol building.

Jonathan Slater

Figure 25
Click To Enlarge

Jonathan Slater's home was established on a 150-acre tract of land located about six blocks to the west of Wheeler's Ferry [Figs. 10-11]. There in 1764 Slater developed a very productive tobacco farm that he operated with the labor of twenty-nine slaves, a total that made him the largest slaveholder on Capitol Hill. His house was located at the southern edge of his holdings at a place that overlooked St. Thomas Bay, a deep inlet in the Anacostia that formerly extended almost to K Street, about three blocks north of the present shoreline. In 1791 Slater sold his farm to Baltimore businessman William Prout. Prout would soon marry Slater's daughter Sarah and the couple took up residence at Slater's farm in 1793. A map of the farmhouse site drawn by Nicholas King in 1796 indicates Mrs. Prout (Slater's daughter) as the owner of record. King shows nine structures spread over a ten-block area located between 7th and 9th Streets, and I and O Streets, SE [Fig. 25]. In addition to a large brick house that stood at what is now the northeast corner of 8th and M Streets, SE, also depicted are two of large barns, three slave quarters, several service buildings, and a family graveyard. Given its proximity to the Navy Yard, the former Slater farm was quickly parceled out into house lots for a rapidly expanding force of shipwrights and other maritime workers.

Figure 26 - Click To Enlarge

Today the site of the Slater/Prout house is occupied by the former Blue Castle Deli, an impressively turreted building that has recently been transformed into a charter school [Fig. 26]. One of Slater's slave houses previously stood right in the opening of the M Street gate entrance to the Navy Yard. A bus stop stands on the former site of the family graveyard.


Daniel Carroll

Figure 27 - Click To Enlarge

"Duddington," Daniel Carroll's great mansion house, was the centerpiece of an estate that covered much of the area that would become the Mall and the entire western end of Capitol Hill from the Anacostia up to K Street, NE [Figs. 10-11]. His house and its dependencies occupied the full block bounded by 1st and 2nd, E and F Streets, SE. A map drawn by Nicholas King in 1796 indicates, in addition to the main house and its garden, a barn and stable, a slave quarter, a springhouse, a bathhouse, and other dependencies [Fig. 27].

Figure 28 - Click To Enlarge

This was definitely one the more lavish plantation settings in the District of Columbia . The impressive house, begun in 1791 and completed by architect Benjamin Latrobe in 1797, was Carroll's second attempt to build a house at this site [Fig. 28]. The first building, located approximately half a block to the west, had projected a few feet into the future path of New Jersey Avenue, SE and thus was torn down on L'Enfant's order. The designer of the capital city would not allow his grand plan to be violated in any manner.

Carroll, of course, protested and was compensated for his loss with a financial settlement approved by President Washington. Becoming more wary about his selection of a house site, his second house was sited well away from New Jersey Avenue and fully within the boundaries of block No. 736.

Figure 29 - Click To Enlarge

While the house was torn down in 1886 there are surviving photographs that reveal its former grandeur. One interesting image made in 1862 shows Carroll's descendents on the porch of the house being served by one of their African-American bondsmen [Fig. 29 ]. In Carroll's day, he owned as many as twenty-five slaves who not only worked in house but who also watched over his livestock and cultivated stands of corn and tobacco. The enormity of the place as it stood on a high ridge overlooking both the Potomac and the Anacostia was remarked upon late into the nineteenth century even as the mansion was falling into ruins.

Figure 30 - Click To Enlarge

In an 1889 article appearing in the Century Magazine [Fig. 30] Mary Lockwood wrote of her visit to Duddington in its twilight years:

We entered the grounds ... The sun had ceased making shadows over Arlington Heights . We clambered up the rude steps that had been made of earth, and by clutching the underbrush, scrambled to the top of the hill, where we found instead of velvet lawns and fertile meadows, primeval forest. We found on the place an old colored man 80 years of age, who was born there and had been a slave.

Figure 31 - Click To Enlarge

Figure 32 - Click To Enlarge

Figure 33 - Click To Enlarge

While the house is gone and its grounds are all covered by row houses [Fig. 31], there is still a remembrance of Daniel Carroll in the name of the one-block-long street that now divides the old block into two sections. The street sign reads " Duddington Place ."

There are, however, some more substantial marks of Carroll's impact on the history of Capitol Hill -- although they are more indirect in nature. In 1799 Carroll sold Robert Sewall a lot at the corner of Constitution Avenue and 2nd Street, NE, a piece of ground that had once be part of Carroll's New Troy tract. Here Sewall built the substantial brick dwelling we know now as the Sewall-Belmont House. This house, rebuilt after the British attack on Washington, stands as one of the few architectural place holders of Carroll's era [Fig. 32].

Within the 600 block of D Street, SE there stands a prominent house known as "The Maples" [Fig. 33]. This was the home of William Mayne Duncanson, a former British naval officer who arrived in Washington , DC in 1794. He acquired the 50-acre tract upon which he built his house from Daniel Carroll. Today the only portion of his grounds to survive is confined at the center of a block bounded by 6th and 7th Streets, D Street and South Carolina Avenue, SE . The house, kitchen, and carriage house were once surrounded by gardens, horse pastures, and large stand of silver maples that supplied inspiration for the name of the estate. With a view of ships riding at anchor in the Anacostia, this was site to rival the eminence of Daniel Carroll's Duddington just three blocks to the west.

In Duncanson's house we have the core of a plantation -- house, kitchen, barn, slave quarter (one of the few still standing in Washington, D.C. ) [Fig.34].

Figure 34 - Click To Enlarge

Similar arrangements once could have been found at the residences of George Walker, Abraham and William Young, Jonathan Slater, and Daniel Carroll. All these sites have disappeared but we would do well to recall them. They are places that connect Capitol Hill to its very southern origins and to the observation of former Capitol Hill resident Frederick Douglass, the noted advocate for African-American political rights and social justice. Douglass wrote that even though Washington was a national city, it remained "southern in all its sympathies." Capitol Hill before L'Enfant was, as we have seen, a terrain of slave-owning farms and plantations. While it had been marked by the slavery system for centuries, only the Maples' slave quarter remains a compelling physical marker that can take us back to that era.


Concluding Thought

Figure 35 - Click To Enlarge

We live among monuments that tower over us, structures that visually demand our attention [Fig. 35]. But we know that beyond and behind them there exists another set of concerns marked by local experiences. We, the residents of Capitol Hill, are keenly aware that we have our own understandings of the nation's history for the national capital is home to us. It is for us an intimate place rather than an official or ceremonial space. We know, to cite just one example, about the hidden settlements tucked back in our alleys, places that intrigue both us locals and our visitors. Our decorous row houses built mainly during the last quarter of the nineteenth century are another source of pride and distinction constituting over 5,000 sites in the largest historic district in the country. We are rich in architecture, rich in history, rich in culture. And if we will look as closely as Ruth Ann Overbeck asked us to, we will find our village rich in meaning. Our deepest, oldest history is not as writer L.P. Hartley suggested "a foreign country," but an experience that stands just outside our doors and right under our feet.



Bibliographic Sources:

Carl Abbott, Political Terrain: Washington, D.C. from Tidewater Town to Global Metropolis (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999)

Kenneth R. Bowling, The Creation of Washington, D.C. : The Idea and Location of the American Capital (Fairfax, Va.: George Mason University Press, 1991)

Kenneth R. Bowling, "The Other G.W.: George Walker and the Creation of the American Capital," Washington History 3, no 2 (1991-92), pp. 4-21.

Allen C. Clark, "The Abraham Young Mansion," Records of the Columbia Historical Society 12 (1909), pp. 53 - 70.

Allen C. Clark, "Origin of the Federal City," Records of the Columbia Historical Society 35-36 (1935), pp. 1 - 97.

Margaret Brent Downing, "The Earliest Proprietors of Capitol Hill," Records of the Columbia Historical Society 21 (1918), pp. 1-23.

Bessie Wilmarth Gahn, Original Patentees of Land at Washington Prior to 1700 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1969)

Howard Gillette, Jr., editor, Southern City, National Ambition: The Growth of Early Washington, D.C., 1800-1860 (Washington, DC: American Architecture Foundation and The George Washington University Center for Washington Area Studies, 1995)

Constance McLaughin Green, Washington : A History of the Capital, 1800-1950 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963)

James M. Goode, Capitol Losses: A Cultural History of Washington 's Destroyed Buildings ( Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Books, 2003)

Don A. Hawkins, "The City of Washington in 1800: A New Map," Washington History 12, no. 1 (2000), pp. 74-77.

Elizabeth S. Kite, L'Enfant and Washington (1791-1792) (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1929)

Priscilla W. McNeil, "Rock Creek Hundred: Land Conveyed for the Federal City," Washington History 3, no. 1 (1991), pp. 34-51.

Ruth Ann Overbeck and Lucinda P. Janke, "William Prout: Capitol Hill's Community Builder," Washington History, 12, no. 1 (2000), pp. 122-139.

John W. Reps, Tidewater Towns : City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland (Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1972)

John W. Reps, Washington on View: The Nation's Capital Since 1790 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991)

John Michael Vlach, "Evidence of Slave Housing in Washington," Washington History 5, no. 2(1993-94), pp. 64-74.

This interview transcript is the property of the Ruth Ann Overbeck
Capitol Hill History Project. Not to be reproduced without permission.